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At the same time, they are usually not clearly understood by the person himself.

The gradual stages of interaction can be provided in the form of gradual phases, based on each of them is the state of information and the nature of the relationship:

1 phase. At this stage, there is contact with the basic fact that appears in the process of human activity – a necessary condition for the beginning of information communication.

Phase 2 (conducting). At this stage, the conductive information adds to the received information, acting as content, one or another symbolic form, thereby creating a message. The same stage should include all procedures related to the organization of information and the formation of arrays of information intended for further transmission.

Phase 3 (transmission). The transmitter and the consumer are affected only by the corresponding potential, which is actualized at this stage – the transmission phase. Here is the transfer of information using the appropriate system of technical means.

Phase 4 (consumption). This phase pretends to be a very complex process, characterized by the active involvement of psychological mechanisms. Only in the consumption phase do changes in the system of attitudes and value orientations begin.

Phase 5 (post phase). The use of information by individuals and groups of people can hardly be considered as a process that always takes place in an explicit form. The effect of information on the consciousness of the object can occur not only once, now, but also have a temporary duration. Information, therefore, can continue to affect the psyche for a long time, regardless of whether this process is perceived or not.

Characteristically, the inclusion of mechanisms that implement the manipulative effect is accounted for by the phases of transmission and consumption. In the post phase there is an accumulation of involuntarily assimilated information that can covertly affect consciousness and is a good foundation for subsequent series of manipulative actions.

The effectiveness of information manipulation is determined by the percentage of subjects who have been exposed to suggestion. Modern survey techniques allow us to estimate this https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ percentage, which, of course, depends on several factors – the art of programmers, the intensity and duration of advertising, the nature of the information, psychological state and general awareness of recipients, and the number of alternative sources.

1. Mass communication. Necessary conditions for the functioning of the media.

Mass communication should be considered as a social phenomenon, the main function of which is to act on the audience through semantic and evaluative information transmitted through the media. Mass communication should also be considered as a mechanism for updating information through various means of communication. There are general conditions necessary for the functioning of the media. These include such conditions as:

Audience. The audience is a necessary condition for the functioning of the media, without it the very existence of the media loses all meaning. The audience is a set of individuals characterized by heterogeneity, anonymity, dispersion. Audiences are individuals included in a network of real social relations and connections. With the help of mass media, the audience maintains relations not only within their social group, but also with the wider social environment.

Social significance of the transmitted information. The content of information transmitted through the media has a great impact on the mass audience in a variety of forms (including in the form of persuasion and suggestion). The effect of information depends on the extent to which it meets the social needs of the audience and the regularity of the information coming from the media. "It should be noted that now the media themselves are able to shape and cultivate the social needs of the audience." Along with the social relevance of semantic information, evaluative information is of great importance. The recipient of the information freely or involuntarily waits for the evaluation information.

The expectation of evaluative information from the media is explained by the fact that they, as social institutions, have the status of an official source of information, to which the mass audience has a high degree of trust. The truth of semantic information is difficult to verify, so the audience listens sensitively to information that seems to them to reflect the dominant trends in society. Valuable information greatly contributes to the formation of public opinion.

Availability of technical means that should ensure the regularity and replication of mass communication. The audience has the opportunity to fill the world with information coming from the media, this is primarily due to the technical capabilities of the media.

The difference in technical armament between the press and television is based on their different attitudes towards the audience. If the press is mainly tuned to the semantic wave of audience perception, then television uses its audiovisual potential. Situational presentation of information in a television program, eliminates contrast to the press, ambiguity. the dynamics of information transfer, the effect of complicity – all these differences between television and the press are due primarily to their different technical format.

2. Aesthetic and semantic information

Using the gradation proposed by A. Moles, we can distinguish such a concept as aesthetic information, which, in contrast to semantic information, does not obey the general laws of logic. Semantic information adjusts people to act according to their beliefs and interests. Semantic information in the open motivates a person to certain actions. It is based on logic and common sense.

Semantic information is used in political activities for the active implementation of mass communications in politics. Aesthetic information is the one that prevails in messages and stories transmitted to the media. Unlike semantic information, it is not obvious. Aesthetic information, flowing from the media, does not so much reflect the real state of affairs, as it causes in the audience mental states, reactions and emotions.

The information transmitted in this way becomes more stable for the audience than the facts and arguments expressed in the form of semantic information. "Thanks to" aesthetic information, people often vote against their beliefs and interests, and this is a direct result of manipulating the media through the aesthetic information they transmit.

Aesthetic information, which forces people to vote not with the mind but with the heart, can be a tool of abuse when acting on people’s minds.

The object of aesthetic information are the values ​​of people on which their beliefs are based. These values ​​are often not based on any facts and evidence, but are created by collective experience. At the same time, they are usually not clearly understood by the person himself. Before the election, people experience a certain fear of the future and unconsciously turn to the values ​​gained by collective experience. At this stage, the aesthetic information transmitted to the media comes to the fore.

Aesthetic information in this case serves as a "glue" between the once produced collective experience and the emotional mood of the audience, able to direct the masses in the right direction. Aesthetic information should be in tune with the emotional and psychological experience of the recipient.

Aesthetic information opens up enormous opportunities for the maintenance and destruction of society’s political beliefs and passions. In Russia, the state, having a monopoly on the transmission of aesthetic information in the media, can help to create a variety of impressions that provoke in the audience a sense of solidarity with the ruling groups (an example of this is the situation in Chechnya ). military invasion of Chechnya).

In a practical sense, aesthetic information looks more attractive to the authorities than semantic, because it is able to prepare actions that contradict the logic and the real situation, but are beneficial to the ruling elite. In the transfer, predominantly, aesthetic information and placed the meaning of politicization of the media, because aesthetic information is not aimed at understanding, and the suggestion of stable symbols through various technical effects.

3 Basic manipulative technologies in the system of mass communications

One of the most common methods of manipulation in the media is the distortion of information. While E. Dotsenko explores such specific techniques as falsification of facts or shift in the semantic field of the concept, S. Kara-Murza identifies: fabrication of facts, manipulative semantics, simplification, stereotyping. Almost always distorted information is used in conjunction with the appropriate method of presentation. Here we note such techniques as assertion, repetition, fragmentation, urgency, sensationalism, as well as the lack of alternative sources of information (or lack of alternative information).

Fabrication of facts (outright lie)

Both politicians and the modern press often claim that the press does not use outright lies – it is both expensive and dangerous. In various versions, the following aphorism is repeated: "What is the point of lying, if the same result can be achieved by carefully dosing the truth?". O. Mole writes that the distortion of reality is achieved more often through the process of "cumulation of small deviations, which always occur in the same direction, than decisive, eye-catching actions." "Honesty is the best policy" it’s about the facts, than to deliberately keep them secret. "It is also emphasized that small shifts leading to the" polarization "of the message flow should be below the semantic susceptibility threshold of the average recipient (ie, on average should not be noticed).

The principle of silence of information

One of the most important rules of manipulation of consciousness is that success depends on how well you manage to isolate the recipient from outside influence. The ideal situation for this would be the totalitarianism of action – the complete absence of alternative, uncontrolled sources of information and opinion.

The difficulty of implementing this rule is primarily to create in the addressee the illusion of independence, the illusion of pluralism of information channels.