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Education: Instructor aptitude: requirements and opportunities

This flat rate is known as the fictitious wage. The calculation on the basis of the fictitious wages takes place in a total of four qualification classes, subdivided into personal qualifications without training, with vocational training, technical college degree and university education according to east and west. This means: Applicants are divided into qualification classes by the employment agency based on their professional training, for which a daily rate of between 46 and 110 euros applies. 67 percent of this is charged.

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Unemployment benefit after parental leave: who has to take into account losses?

Unemployment benefit is calculated on the basis of the fictitious earnings for mothers and fathers who have been on parental leave for more than two years and have not earned any income. Depending on the qualification, the unemployment benefit is well below 67 percent of the previous net income.

The more than 43 million people in employment in Germany worked as much in 2015 as not for 23 years. Together they worked almost 59 billion hours. That is the highest volume since 1992, announced the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) of the Federal Employment Agency. 

Nevertheless, those in employment spent far less time at work last year than they did in the early 1990s. Their average annual working time has since fallen by around 194 hours to 1,371 hours.

On average, worked a little longer than in 2014

Compared to the previous year, however, working hours increased slightly by 0.3 percent. This is due to both the increase in the number of people in employment and the increase in working hours, explained Enzo Weber from the IAB: “The development of the labor market remains an anchor of stability even in view of the current global economic weakness.”

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At 1656.5 hours, full-time employment increased slightly more in 2015 than part-time employment (692 hours), whose share of total employment fell to 38.3 percent. According to the IAB, the decline in mini-jobs, which many experts believe has to do with the introduction of the statutory minimum wage at the beginning of 2015, also contributed to this.

More paid overtime

The number of people in employment rose by 0.8 percent to 43.03 million compared to the previous year. The Germans also worked slightly more paid overtime in 2015 than in 2014 – namely 21.1 hours (plus 0.3 hours). However, in 2015 employees were sick a little more often. As a result, they were absent from the company for an average of 10 days; In 2014 it was only 9.4 days. 

Cumulative working hours have tended to rise for ten years – to 59 billion recently. The financial crisis led to a kink from 2008. (Source: t-online)

More exciting graphics at Statista.

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The Paritätische Wohlfahrtsverband insists on a significant increase in the Hartz IV rates by almost 15 percent. “We consider an increase from now 391 to 447 euros to be absolutely appropriate and appropriate. That would also be the best economic stimulus program for the regions, because the recipients spend everything,” said Ulrich Schneider, managing director of the Paritätischer Wohlfahrtsverband, the “Passauer Neue Presse”.

In view of a study by the Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (IW), which found a growing risk of poverty in major German cities, Schneider called for a fund for poor regions instead of the previous support for East Germany through Solidarity Pact II.

In addition, the association considers rents to be the decisive factor for the increasing risk of poverty in large cities and therefore calls for an increase in housing benefits.

Fewer households receive housing benefit

“Since 2009 the number of households receiving housing benefit has fallen from over one million to almost 800,000 households. The housing benefit regulations have not kept up with the skyrocketing rents in some regions or with the enormous increases in energy costs,” explained Schneider.

Cabinet advises on abuse of social benefits

The federal government wants to tighten a number of laws and administrative regulations in order to combat the abuse of social benefits by foreigners from other EU countries. As reported by the Dortmund “Ruhr Nachrichten”, the final report of a committee of state secretaries, which is expected to be discussed in the cabinet on Wednesday, provides for this.

Those who do not yet have a job should only be able to stay in Germany for six months to look for work. Multiple receipt of child benefit should be prevented. Undeclared work should also be more closely controlled.

According to a report in the “Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung”, however, the CSU has failed in its demand that social fraudsters from EU countries be subject to re-entry bans. The draft provides for such barriers only in narrowly defined cases – “if there is a particularly serious case, in particular a repeated pretense of the prerequisites for the right to entry and residence”.

The CSU kicked off the debate at the beginning of the year with the controversial slogan “If you cheat, you fly”. She warned against the alleged massive abuse of social benefits by Bulgarians and Romanians, who have had free access to the German labor market since January 1st.

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Increase in Hartz IV recipients from Eastern Europe

The domestic policy spokesman for the CDU / CSU parliamentary group in the Bundestag, Stephan Mayer (CSU), told the “Passauer Neue Presse” that the final report showed that the CSU was right to see the significant increase in Hartz IV recipients from Romania and Bulgaria discussed the enormous financial burden of many cities.

A part-time training opens up professional development, simplifies the change of industry and helps on the leap into independence. Today opportunities are offered by private institutes as well as public institutions that cooperate with schools. Find out more here to increase your professional chances in the long term.

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Lifelong learning – with a strategy for a secure job

Would you like to establish yourself professionally in the long term despite the current tense situation on the labor market? Then you not only have to be flexible in terms of location, but also increase your chances with your own initiative. In-service training can improve your career opportunities and deepen your specialist knowledge. There are various options open to you for part-time training.

Typical options include postgraduate courses that are offered by universities of applied sciences and distance learning universities nationwide. These forms require little attendance and are mainly carried out through self-study and online sessions. However, an already completed university degree or similar qualifications in connection with several years of professional experience apply as an entry requirement.

In-service training: mix of practice and learning content

Opportunities to take advantage of part-time training also include offers at vocational colleges. These include school training on two days of the week, which are supplemented by practical training on three more days. This form is becoming increasingly important, especially in social professions, as part-time training is closely linked to practical experience.

You also have the opportunity to take part in advanced professional training. For example, if you work in industry or in the skilled trades, some universities of applied sciences offer further training, for example to become a manual worker. Relevant professional experience is a prerequisite for admission. This part-time training usually lasts three years and is offered in the form of block lessons that take place several times a year.

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Catch up on vocational qualifications: training for beginners

In-service training also gives you attractive opportunities to catch up on a professional qualification. Here, skills and knowledge in professional fields such as care for the elderly are imparted in a practical way. After the end of the training period, which comprises 42 months, graduates are able to take on the advice and care on their own.

Without their own provision, many citizens are threatened with old-age poverty in the future. This is what the federal government points out in the “Old Age Insurance Report 2016”, from which the “Süddeutsche Zeitung” (SZ) quotes. Women are particularly affected.

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Study on old-age provision

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The current government analysis states that the level of provision for future pensioners will “decline significantly in the coming years without additional pension provision”. The federal government sees a considerable risk for low earners. “If there is no additional provision for old age in this income range, the risk of neediness rises sharply in old age,” the report says.

Men get more than women

The analysis also documents large differences in income. Men with an average net retirement income of 1700 euros would have almost 600 euros more than women. Civil servants also have an “above-average old-age income”: their pensions, at an average of 2300 euros net per month, are higher than benefits from other pension schemes. Almost half of the formerly self-employed, on the other hand, only have a net income of less than 1,000 euros.

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The Federal Ministry of Labor prepares the pension report every four years. According to SZ, the 258-page document shows that the statutory pension is still the most important factor in caring for the elderly. At the beginning of 2015, around 17 million people in Germany were 65 years of age or older. Almost three quarters of all retirement benefits paid to this generation come from the pension fund.

Today’s retirees are well looked after

For the figures, the TNS Infratest Social Research Institute surveyed more than 30,000 citizens in 2015 and extrapolated their information for the population. The report shows that many pensioners currently appear to be quite well taken care of, reports the SZ. Many would have additional income, almost a third, for example, from company pension schemes. As a result, they received an average of EUR 418 gross per month.

Most often, seniors had interest income in addition to their pension. Married couples in the West collected at least 282 euros a month, single people 178 euros.

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The less widespread rental and leasing income is significantly higher. Married couples of retirement age achieve an income of 947 euros per month. “People who own a home have a significantly higher disposable income than tenants,” the SZ quotes from the report.

Temporary workers are on sick leave longer than permanent employees. This is the result of an investigation by the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), which the newspapers of the Funke media group reported on.

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Temporary workers were absent on an average of 20.3 days in 2016. That is 5.6 days more than for employees in regular jobs, who were absent on average 14.7 days. The situation has therefore deteriorated in the past few years. In 2008, for example, temporary workers were only sick for 14.7 days. In other industries it was eleven days.

Physically hard work and psychological stress as the cause

Musculoskeletal disorders, in particular, led to more sick days among temporary workers. For this reason, they were absent on average 4.5 days a year. Permanent employees were on sick leave for 2.8 days because of this diagnosis. In the case of mental illness, temporary workers had an average of 3.4 sick days per year compared to 2.4 days in the rest of the economy.